Resume of Meenakshi Balakrishnan


Updated: 18th Nov 2020

Name:  M. Balakrishnan

Date of birth: 28th Aug. 1956

Address for correspondence:

Postal address:            8, West Avenue, IIT Campus, New Delhi 110016


Telephone:                  9871666611


Field(s) of specialization:

Assistive devices for the visually impaired

Embedded system design

Behavioral and system level synthesis

System level design & modeling

Hardware-software codesign

Computer architecture


Academic qualifications:  

Ph.D.(EE)                     1984    IIT Delhi          

Thesis title :                 A Microprogram Generating system with Emphasis on Signal Processing Architectures)

B.E.(Hons.)(EEE)          1977    BITS,Pilani       First rank in Engg. in 1977(CGPA : 9.77)


Positions held, Date of joining and the Institution (In reverse chronological order):

Position                                   Period                         Place

Professor                                 Aug'97 – present         Dept. of CSE, IIT Delhi

(On leave from 1st Jan 2020)

Vice Chancellor                       Jan’20 – Sep’20           Satya Bharti Institute of Technology 

Deputy Director                       Jul’16 – Sep’19            IIT Delhi

(Strategy & Planning)

Coordinator, School of IT                    Jul’15 – Aug’16            ANSK School of IT, IIT Delhi

Deputy Director(Faculty)         Jul’09 – Jun’12             IIT Delhi

Dean(PGS&R)                          Sep'06 – Aug‘09          IIT Delhi

Head                                        Sep'01 - Aug'04           Dept. of CSE, IIT Delhi

Visiting Prof.                            Aug'94 - Jul'95                        LS Informatik XII, Univ. of Dortmund

Associate Prof.                         Apr'91 - July'97           Dept. of CSE, IIT Delhi

Assistant Prof.                          Dec'88 - Mar'91          Dept. of CSE, IIT Delhi

Visiting Scientist                      May'88 - Dec'88         Institut fuer Informatik, Univ. of Kiel

Assistant Prof.                          Sep'87 - May'88          Dept. of ECE, Syracuse Univ.

Research Associate                 Sep'85 - Aug'87           Dept. of CIS, Univ. of Guelph

Scientist                                   May'77 - Aug'85         CARE, IIT Delhi


Awards and fellowships


Award (Body)



Life Time Award (IIT Delhi)


IIT Delhi – Given to one senior faculty each year

Eugene L Lawler Award (ACM)*


Humanitarian Contributions within Computer Science and Informatics (Once in 2 years)

Fellow (INAE)


Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineers

National Award (DST)


RBD- Scientist impacting life of the Disabled

National Award (DST)


OnBoard - Scientist impacting life of the Disabled

Manthan Award (DEF)


SmartCaneTM - - Scientist impacting life of the Disabled

National Award (MSJE)


SmartCaneTM – Research impacting life of the Disabled (Given to the parent Department)

NCPEDP-Mphasis Universal Design


Working Professionals

IIT Delhi Golden Jubilee Committee (IIT Delhi)


Mentor Award – 20 Alumni nominate a teacher for the award

Vasvik Award 2005


Research that is industrially relevant

TODAES 2007 Best paper Award*


SIGDA (given at DAC 2007)

Konrad Zuse fellow (DAAD)*


DAAD Germany gives to one Computer Science visiting Professor each year

Invention Award (NRDC)


NRDC invention award for the work of Deck Landing Mirror Sight

Silver Medal (BITS Pilani)


 I in Engg. 1977 and II among the batch of 1972

NSTS Scholarship (NCERT and IARI)


 IARI gave the fellowship for studying Agri. Engg. - Not accepted

Best School Boy Award (Birla Higher Secondary School)


Annually one student in the graduating class is selected as Best School Boy


*International awards




Professional Achievements and contributions:


·         31 journal, 106 refereed conference publications, two books, two book chapters, seven patents including two PCTs, one trademark and one design registration  (List of publications in Annexures A, B, C and D)

·         32 sponsored research projects (approx. Rs. 15.00 crores) with PI in 18 of them (approx. Rs 10.00 crores) . Apart from that 21 consultancies including from leading EDA/VLSI companies (Annexure E)

·         17 PhDs and 4 MS(R) completed with 5 PhDs (including 1 submitted) and 1 MS(R) ongoing (Annexure F)

·         129 MTechs and 87 BTech projects supervised till July 2020 (List on my homepage –

·         Founding member of 3 start-ups  (Annexure G)  

·         Responsible for 6 technology transfers (Annexure H) 

·         Many significant contributions to technical activities and professional societies (Annexure I)

·         Key initiatives and contributions in education and research management at IIT Delhi (Annexure J)

·         Key Initiatives and contributions in Embedded/VLSI/EDA/CS domains (Annexure K)

·         Academic planning for establishment of Satya Bharti Institute of Technology (Annexure L)



Key Outside IIT Delhi Memberships and Roles:


·         Educational Institutions

-   Member, BoG,  NSIT Delhi (2005 - 2016)

-    Member, Academic Council, SMVDU, Jammu (2006 - 2014)

-   Member, Advisory role of Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) Delhi (2008 - 2011)

-   Alumni advisory committee, BITS Pilani, (2011 - 2014)

-   Member, Academic Council, JNU (2012 - 2015)

-   Member, BoG, NIT Delhi (2019 - )

-   Member, Senate IIIT Sri City (2019 - )

·         Industry/Industry bodies

-   Chairman, Board of Directors, KritiKal Solutions India (Pvt) Ltd. TBIU Startup (2006 - 2013)

-   Director (Non-executive), TCIL (2009 - 2013)

-   Director (Non-executive), ITI (2009 - 2013)

-   Member, Education Core Group, FICCI (2020 - )

-   Member, Education Council, CII (2020 - )

·         Professional

-  Steering Committee Member, VLSI Design (2006 - 2015)

-  ACM DSP Committee, ACM New York (2011 – 2015)

-  Member, Research Advisory Council, CEERI, Pilani (CSIR laboratory) (2010 - 2016)

-  Member, Industrial Applications WG,  MCIT, Govt. of India (2010 - 2013 )

-  Member, Microelectronics WG,  MCIT, Govt. of India (2010 - 2013)

-  Senior Member, IEEE

-  Senior Member, ACM

-  Founding Member, ACM India Council (2009- 2012)

-  President, ACM NCR Chapter (2011-2015)

-  Associate Editor, IEEE Embedded Systems Letters (ESL) (2013 - 2016)

-  Associate Editor, ACM TECS (2017 - )

Referees (detailed office/residence addresses or phone numbers on request):


Within IIT Delhi


Prof. Ramgopal Rao, Director, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 110016


Prof. Surendra Prasad, ex-Director, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 110016


Prof. Anshul Kumar, Professor, CSE Department, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 110016



Outside IIT Delhi Within India


Prof. S.N. Maheshwari, Retd Professor, CSE, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016


Prof. B.N. Jain, Ex-VC, BITS Pilani, Ex-DD(F), IIT Delhi


Mr. V.B. Taneja, Retired Senior Director, MCIT, New Delhi




Outside India

Prof. Sharad Malik, Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, USA


Prof. Peter Marwedel, Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund, Germany


Prof. Vishwani Agrawal, Auburn University, USA

Prof. Nikil Dutt, Department of Computer Science, University of California, USA






  Annexure A

Complete list of publications in standard refereed journals


1.      Solomon Abera, M Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, “Performance-Energy Trade-off in Modern CMPs”, accepted for publication as full paper in ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization


2.      R Devadoss, K Paul, M Balakrishnan, “Equivalence Checking and Compaction of n-input Majority Terms Using Implicants of Majority”, Journal of Electronic Testing 35 (5), Springer, Oct 2019, pp. 679-694


3.       G Ananthanarayanan, SR Sarangi, M Balakrishnan , “Task Assignment Algorithms for Multicore Platforms with Process Variations”, Journal of Low Power Electronics 14 (2),  June 2018, pp. 302-317


4.      R Gupta, PVM Rao, M Balakrishnan, S Mannheimer, Basic Identity Tags (BITs) in Tactile Perception of 2D shape, The Journal on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Mar 2018, , pp. 103 – 116


5.      Mansureh Shahraki Moghaddam, M Balakrishnan and Kiyoung Choi, “Optimal mapping of program overlays onto many-core platforms with limited memory capacity”, Design Automation for Embedded Systems, Springer U, Dec 2017, Vol 21, No. 3-4, pp. 173-194


6.      Piyush Chanana, Rohan Paul, M Balakrishnan, PVM Rao, “Assistive technology solutions for aiding travel of pedestrians with visual impairment”,  Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering, SAGE Publications, vol. 4, Aug 2017, pp. 2055668317725993


7.      B Sharat Chandra Varma, Kolin Paul, M Balakrishnan, Dominique Lavenier, “Hardware acceleration of de novo genome assembly”, International Journal of Embedded Systems, Inderscience Publishers (IEL), Vol. 9, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 74-89


8.      Richa Gupta, M Balakrishnan, PVM Rao, “Tactile Diagrams for the Visually Impaired”, IEEE Potentials, IEEE, Jan 2017, Vol 36, No. 1, pp. 14-18


9.      Manish Kumar Jaiswal, B. Sharat Chandra Verma, Hayden K.-H. So, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, Ray C.C. Cheung,  “Configurable Architectures for Multi-Mode Floating Point Adders”, IEEE Trans. On Circuits and Systems I, Vol 62(8), 2079-2090, 2015

10.  Arun Kumar Parakh, M. Balakrishnan and Kolin Paul, “Improving Map-Reduce for GPUs with cache”, Int. J. High Performance Systems Architecture, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2015, pp. 166-177


11.  Manish Kumar Jaiswal, Ray C. C. Cheung, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Series Expansion based Efficient Architectures for Double Precision Floating Point Division”,  Circuits Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 33, No. 11, 2014, pp. 3499-3526


12.  Manish Kumar Jaiswal, Ray C. C. Cheung, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Unified Architecture for Double/Two-Parallel Single Precision Floating Point Adder”,  IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems Vol.  61-II, No. 7, 2014, pp.  521-525


13.  Gayathri Ananthanarayanan, Geetika Malhotra, M. Balakrishnan, and Smruti R. Sarangi, “Amdahl's Law in the Era of Process Variation”, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2013, International Journal of High Performance Systems Architecture (IJHPSA), pp.  218-230   


14.  Sonali Chouhan, M. Balakrishnan, Ranjan Bose, "System-Level Design Space Exploration Methodology for Energy-Efficient Sensor Node Configurations: An Experimental Validation", IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 31, No.4, 2012, pp. 586-596


15.  Rajeswari Devadoss, Kolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, "p-QCA: A Tiled Programmable Fabric Architecture Using Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata", JETC, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2011, Article No. 13


16.  P Panda, M Balakrishnan and A. Vishnoi, “Compressing Cache State for Post-Silicon Processor Debug”  IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 60, No. 4, April 2011, pp 484-497 


17.  R. Devadoss, K. Paul, M. Balakrishnan, “Coplanar QCA crossovers”, Electronics Letters, Volume 45,  Issue 24,  November 19 2009, pp.1234 – 1235


18.  Sonali Chouhan, Ranjan Bose, M. Balakrishnan, “Integrated Energy Analysis of Error Correcting Codes and Modulation for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Nodes”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Volume 8,  Issue 10,  October 2009, pp. 5348 - 5355


19.  Sonali Chouhan, Ranjan Bose, M. Balakrishnan, “A Framework for Energy Consumption Based Design Space Exploration for Wireless Sensor Nodes”, IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Volume 28,  Issue 7,  July 2009, pp. 1017 - 1024


20.  Anup Gangwar, M. Balakrishnan, Anshul Kumar and Preeti Ranjan Panda, ``Evaluation of Bus Based Interconnect Mechanisms in Clustered VLIW Architectures'', International Journal of Parallel Programming (IJPP), Springer, The Netherlands, vol 35, pp. 507-527, Dec 2007


21.  Anup Gangwar, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Impact of Inter-cluster Mechanisms on ILP in Clustered VLIW Architectures'', ACM TODAES, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan 2007, pp. 1-29. (Best Paper Award for ACM TODAES 2007)


22.  Manoj Kumar Jain, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Efficient Technique for Exploring Register File SIze in ASIP Design'', IEEE Trans. on  VLSI, vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 1693-1699, Dec. 2004.


23.  L. Wehmeyer, Manoj Jain, Stefan Steinke, Peter Marwedel and M. Balakrishnan, "Analysis of the Influence of Register File Size on Energy Consumption, Code Size and Execution Time" IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 20, no. 11, Nov. 2001, pp. 1329-1337.


24.  M. Balakrishnan and Heman Khanna, ``Allocation of FIFO Structures in RTL Data Paths", ACM TODAES, July 2000, pp. 294-310.


25.  A.R. Naseer, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Direct Mapping of RTL Structures onto LUT based FPGAs'', IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol 17, No. 7, July 1998, pp. 624-631


26.  Alok Mittal,Aditya Vailaya, S, Banerjee and M. Balakrishnan, "Real Time Vision System for Collision Detection" CSI Journal of Computer Science and Informatics, March 1995, pp. 13-29. (Best Paper Award of CSI Journal of Computer Science and Informatics 1995)


27.  M.Balakrishnan, A.K.Majumdar, D.K.Banerji and J.G.Linders, "Synthesis of Decentralized Controllers from High Level Description", Euromicro Journal of Microprocessing and Microprogramming, Vol. 22, No. 3, May 1988, pp 217-229.


28.  M.Balakrishnan, A.K.Majumdar, D.K.Banerji, J.G.Linders and J.C.Majithia, "Allocation of Multiport Memories in Data Path Synthesis", IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol 7, April 1988, pp 536-540.


29.  M.Balakrishnan, A.K.Majumdar, D.K.Banerji, J.G.Linders and J.C.Majithia, "A Semantic Approach to Modular Synthesis of VLSI Systems", Information Processing Letters, Vol 27, No. 1, Feb. 1988, pp 1-7.


30.  M.Balakrishnan, B.B.Madan and P.C.P.Bhatt, "An Efficient Retargetable Micro-code Generating System", Euromicro Journal of Microprocessing and Microprogramming, Vol. 19, No. 4, Oct. 1987, pp 305-318.


31.  M.Balakrishnan, P.C.P.Bhatt and B.B.Madan, "A Survey of Microprogramming Languages", Euromicro Journal of Microprocessing and Microprogramming, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan. 1986, pp 19-27.

Annexure B

Complete list of papers published in peer reviewed conferences



1.      Akashdeep, M Balakrishnanm Volker Sorge, “Evaluating Cognitive Complexity of Algebraic Equations”, Accepted for presentation in 36th CSUN Conference, March 2021


2.      Shikha Goel, Rajesh Kedia, M. Balakrishnan and Rijurekha Sen, "INFER: INterFerence-aware Estimation of Runtime for Concurrent CNN Execution on DPUs", Accepted for presentation at FPT 2020, 9-11 Dec. 2020, Maui, Hawaii, USA 


3.      Rajesh Kedia, M. Balakrishnan, and Kolin Paul, Work-in-Progress: A case for design space exploration of context-aware adaptive embedded systems, CODES+ISSS, Oct. 2019


4.      Anupam Sobti, M. Balakrishnan and Chetan Arora, Multi-sensor Energy Efficient Obstacle Detection, Euromicro DSD 2019, Chalkidiki, Greece, 28-30 Aug 2019, pp 19-26


5.      Rajesh Kedia, M. Balakrishnan and Kolin Paul "GRanDE: Graphical representation and design space exploration of embedded systems",  Euromicro DSD 2019, Chalkidiki, Greece, 28-30 Aug 2019, pp 4-12


6.      R Gupta, PVM Rao, M Balakrishnan, S Mannheimer, Evaluating the Use of Variable Height in Tactile Graphics, 2019 IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC), Montreal, Canada, 3-6 July 2019, pp. 121-126


7.      S Holani, A Bansal, M Balakrishnan, Pushpak: Voice Command-based eBook Navigator, Proceedings of the 16th Web For All,  May 2019


8.      SP Chowdhary, D Manocha, M Balakrishnan, A Bansal, H Garg, Making Legacy Digital Content Accessible at Source, Proceedings of the 16th Web For All, May 2019


9.      SA Bekele, M Balakrishnan, A Kumar, ML guided energy-performance trade-off estimation for uncore frequency scaling, 2019 Spring Simulation Conference (SpringSim), 1, 2019


10.  R Devadoss, K Paul, M Balakrishnan, Majority Logic: Prime Implicants and n-Input Majority Term Equivalence , 32nd International Conference on VLSI Design, Jan 2019


11.  SM Adhepalli, P Sapra, S Agrawal, P Chanana, M Balakrishnan, FPGA-Based Controllers for Compact Low Power Refreshable Braille Display,  IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), 632-637, July 2018


12.  Manshul Belani, Dinesh Kaushal, Manish Agrawal and M Balakrishnan, “DescribeIt:  CSUN 2018, March 2018, San Diego


13.  Richa Gupta, Steven Mannheimer, M Balakrishnan and PVM Rao, “Basic Identity Tags (BITs) in tactile perception of 2D shape”, (accepted for presentation)


14.  Anupam Sobti, Chetan Arora and M. Balakrishnan, “Object Detection in Real-Time Systems: Going Beyond Precision”, WACV 2018, March 2018, Lake Tahoe, USA pp. 1020-1028


15.  Solomon Abera Bekele, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, “Performance-Energy Trade-off in CMPs with Per-Core DVFS”, April 2018, International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems, Braunschweig, Springer, Cham , pp 225-238


16.  Varan Gupta, Pulkit Sapra, Suman Muralikrishnan, M Balakrishnan, PVM Rao, “Design and Comparative Analysis of Linear Guides for Refreshable Braille Displays”, Aug 2017, ASME 2017 IDETC&CIE, Cleveland, DETC2017-68308, pp. V05BT08A030-V05BT08A030


17.  Pulkit Sapra, Ankit Kumar Parsurampuria, Suman Muralikrishnan, Varan Gupta, H Karthikeyan, K Bhagavatheesh, Arun Venkatesan, Sashikumar Valiyaveetil, M Balakrishnan, PVM Rao,”Refreshable Braille Display Using Shape Memory Alloy With Latch Mechanism”, Aug 2017, ASME 2017 IDETC&CIE, Cleveland, DETC2017-68311, pp. V009T07A040-V009T07A040 (Best Paper Award)


18.  Solomon Abera, M Balakrishnan, Anshul Kumar, “PLSS: A Scheduler for Multi-core Embedded Systems”, April 2017, International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems, Vienna, Springer, Cham, pp. 164-176


19.  Rajesh Kedia, KK Yoosuf, Pappireddy Dedeepya, Munib Fazal, Chetan Arora, M Balakrishnan, “MAVI: An Embedded Device to Assist Mobility of Visually Impaired”, 30th International Conference on VLSI Design and 2017 16th International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID), 2017, Hyderabad, India, IEEE, Jan 2017, pp. 213-218


20.  G Ananthanarayanan, SR Sarangi, M Balakrishnan, “Leakage Power Aware Task Assignment Algorithms for Multicore Platforms”, VLSI (ISVLSI), 2016 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI, 11-13 July, Pittsburg, USA, 607-612


21.  Kunal Kwatra, Renu Kaushik, Lipika Vidawat, Vibha Choudhary, Mayank Aamseek, Kameshwar Chesetti, M. Balakrishnan, “Converting Mathematics Textbook to Tactile Form: Process and Experiences”, DEIMS 2016, Kanagawa , Japan, 4-6 Feb 2016


22.  Siddhartha Gupta, Manshul V Belani, Dinesh Kaushal, M. Balakrishnan, “Microsoft Excel ChartsTMAccessibility: An Affordable and Effective Solution”, DEIMS 2016, Kanagawa , Japan, 4-6 Feb 2016


23.  Pulkit Sapra, Ankit Kumar Parsurampuria, Dhruv Gupta, Suman Muralikrishnan, Mayank Raj, Akash Anand, Vinit Darda,” Rohan Paul, M Balakrishnan and P.V.M. Rao, “A Compliant Mechanism Design for Refreshable Braille Display Using Shape Memory Alloy”, ASME – MESA 2015, 2-5 Aug 2015, Boston, USA


24.  Dheeraj Mehra, Deepak Gupta, Vishwarath.T, Neil Shah, Piyush Chanana, Siddharth, Rohan Paul, BalaKrishnan M and PVM Rao,  "Bus Identification System for Visually Impaired: Evaluation and learning from field trials", Accepted for presentation at TRANSED 2015, 29-31 July 2015, Lisbon, Portugal


25.  Rajeswari Devadoss, Kolin Paul and M Balakrishnan, “MajSynth : An n-input Majority Algebra based Logic Synthesis Tool for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata”, 22nd Intl. Workshop on Logic Synthesis, 12-13 June 2015, Mountain View, California


26.  Mansureh Shahraki Moghaddam, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Partial Reconfiguration for Dynamic Mapping of Task Graphs onto 2D Mesh Platform”,  ARC 2015, 13-17 April, 2015, Bochum, Germany, pp. 373-382


27.  B. Sharat Chandra Varma, Kolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, “High Level Design Approach to Accelerate De Novo Genome Assembly Using FPGAs” DSD 2014, 27-29 Aug., Verona, Italy, pp. 66-73


28.  Mrinal Mech, Kunal Kwatra, Supriya Das, Piyush Chanana, Rohan Paul, M. Balakrishnan, “Edutactile - A Tool for Rapid Generation of Accurate Guideline-Compliant Tactile Graphics for Science and Mathematics.”, ICCHP (2), 7-11 July, 2014, Paris, France, pp. 34-41


29.  Manish Kumar Jaiswal, Ray C. C. Cheung, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Configurable Architecture for Double/Two-Parallel Single Precision Floating Point Division”, ISVLSI 2014, 2-9 July 2014, Tampa, Florida, pp. 332-33


30.  Mansureh Shahraki Moghaddam, Kolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, “Mapping Tasks to a Dynamically Reconfigurable Coarse Grained Array”,  (Poster paper) FCCM 2014, 11-13 May, Boston, pp 33


31.  Smruti R. Sarangi, Gayathri Ananthanarayanan, and M. Balakrishnan, “LightSim : A Leakage Aware Ultrafast Temperature Simulator”, 19th ASP-DAC, 20-23 Jan 2014, Singapore, pp. 855-860  


32.  B. Sharat Chandra Varma, Kolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, "Accelerating Genome Assembly using Hard Embedded Blocks in FPGAs.",  IEEE 27th International Conference on VLSI Design, 5-9 Jan 2014, Mumbai, pp. 306-311


33.  Dhruv JainAkhil JainRohan PaulAkhila Komarika, M. Balakrishnan: A path-guided audio based indoor navigation system for persons with visual impairment,   ASSETS '13, October 21-23 October, 2013, Bellevue, WA, USA, pp. 33.


34.  Mansureh S, Kolin Paul and M Balakrishnan, "Design and Implementation of High Performance Architectures with Partially Reconfigurable CGRAs" 20th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop (RAW 2013),  May 20-21, 2013, Boston, USA


35.  B. Sharat Chandra VarmaKolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, Dominique Lavenier, “ FAssem: FPGA Based Acceleration of De Novo Genome Assembly”, FCCM 2013, 28-30 April, Seattle, USA,  pp. 173-176


36.  Lava Bhargava, Ranjan Bose, M. Balakrishnan, “Novel Hardware Implementation of LLR-based Non-binary LDPC Decoders’, NCC 2013, New Delhi, Feb 2013


37.  Arun Kumar Parakh, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Performance enhancement of Map-Reduce framework on GPU”,  The 11th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networks (PDCN 2013), Feb 2013, Innsbruck, Austria


38.  Dheeraj Mehra,  M. Balakrishnan,  “Design for user testing of affordable bus identification and homing system for the visually impaired”, Presented at Transportation Research Board Annual Conference (TRB 2013), Washington D.C. USA, Jan 2013  (selected for presentation in a special session at TRB 2013 from TRANSED 2012), Proc. of 13th International conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2012), Sep. 2012, New Delhi, India


39.  Sharat Chandra Verma, Kolin Paul, M Balakrishnan, “Accelerating 3D-FFT using Hard Embedded Blocks in FPGA”, 23rd Proceedings of the International Conference on VLSI Design, Pune, India, Jan. 2013


40.  Dhruv Jain,  M. Balakrishnan  Design and user testing of an affordable cell phone based indoor navigation system for visually impaired”, Proc. of 13th International conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2012), Sep. 2012, New Delhi, India, Best Paper Award (


41.  Arun Kumar Parakh, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, “Performance estimation and application mapping on different GPUs”, 26th IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium Workshop  (IPDPSW2012), May 2012, Shanghai, China


42.  Rajeswari Devadoss, Kolin Paul, M. Balakrishnan, "Architecture and tools for programmable QCA", FPT 2011, Dec. 2011, Delhi, pp. 1-4


43.  R. Devadoss, K. Paul, M. Balakrishnan, “A Tiled Programmable Fabric using QCA”,  FPT 2010, Beijing, Dec. 2010, pp. 9-16


44.  Preeti Ranjan Panda, Anant Vishnoi and M. Balakrishnan, “Enhancing post-silicon processor debug with Incremental Cache state Dumping”, IEEE VLSI-SOC, Madrid, Spain, September 2010, pp. 55-60


45.  Rohan Paul, M. Balakrishnan  "Smart Cane for the Visually Impaired" Proc. of 12th International conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons, (TRANSED 2010), Hong Kong, June 2010 (Peter Chan Best Paper Award)


46.  Vasudev Sharma, M. Balakrishnan “User Triggered Bus Identification and Homing System: Making Public Transport Accessible for the Visually Challenged”, Proc. of 12th International conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons, (TRANSED 2010), Hong Kong, June 2010


47.  R. Devadoss, K. Paul, M. Balakrishnan,  Clocking-based Coplanar Wire Crossing Scheme for QCA at 23rd Proceedings of the International Conference on VLSI Design, Bengaluru, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 339-344


48.  R. Devadoss, K. Paul, M. Balakrishnan, Clocking-based Coplanar Wire Crossing Scheme for QCA at 1st International Workshop on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, UBC, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 2009.


49.  Anant Vishnoi, Preeti Ranjan Panda, M. Balakrishnan, “Online Cache State Dumping for Processor Debug”. DAC 2009, pp. 358-363, Aug. 2009


50.  Sonali Chouhan, M. Balakrishnan, Ranjan Bose, “An Experimental Validation of System Level Design Space Exploration Methodology for Energy Efficient Sensor Nodes”, ISLPED 2009,  pp. 355-358, Aug. 2009


51.  Anant Vishnoi, Preeti Ranjan Panda and  M. Balakrishnan,  “Cache Aware Compression for Processor Debug Support”   Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 20-24 April, Nice, France, pp. 208-213, April 2009


52.  Sahu, M. Balakrishnan and Preeti Ranjan Panda, “A Generic Platform for Estimation of Multi-threaded Program Performance on Heterogeneous Multiprocessor”, Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) 20-24 April, Nice, France, pp. 1018-1023, April 2009


53.  Kolin Paul,  M. Balakrishnan, Advait Jain, Pulkit Gambhir and Priyanka Jindal, “FPGA Accelerator for Protein Structure Prediction Algorithms” SPL 2009, Sao Carlos, Brazil, 1-3 April 2009, pp. 123-128


54.  Sonali Chouhan, M. Balakrishnan and Ranjan Bose, A Framework for Energy Consumption Based Design Space Exploration for Wireless Sensor Nodes, In International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Bangalore, India, pp. 329-334, Aug 2008.

55.  M Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, Ankush Garg, Rohan Paul, Dheeraj Mehra, Vaibhav Singh, P.V.M. Rao, Vishwas Goel, Debraj Chatterjee, Dipendra Manocha,  “Cane Mounted Knee-above Obstacle Detection and Warning System for the visually impaired”,  3rd ASME/IEEE International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA 2007), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, September 2007

56.  Ashutosh Pal and M. Balakrishnan, ``A Behavioral Synthesis Approach to Distributed Memory FPGA Architectures'', FPL 2007, Amsterdam, 27- 29 Aug. 2007, pp. 517-520


57.  Rohan Paul, Ankush Garg, Vaibhav Singh, Dheeraj Mehra, M. Balakrishnan, Kolin Paul, Dipendra Manocha ,``Smart Cane for the Visually Impaired: Technological Solutions for Detecting Know above Obstacles and Accessing Public Buses'', Proc. of 11th International conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2007), Montreal, Canada, June 2007


58.  H. Dhand, Basant Dwivedi and M. Balakrishnan, ``New Approach to Architectural Synthesis: Incorporating QoS Constraint'', Proc. EMSOFT 2006, Seoul, Korea, Oct. 2006, pp.301-310.


59.  Basant K. Dwivedi, Arun Kejariwal, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Rapid Resource-Constrained Hardware Performance Estimation'', Proc. International Workshop on Rapid System Prototyping (RSP06), Chania, Crete, Greece, June 2006, pp 40-46.


60.  Akhilesh Chaudhary, Gaurav Gupta and M Balakrishnan, ``Factoring Large Numbers Using FPGAs'', Proc of VLSI Design and Test Symposium (VDAT 2005), Bangalore, India, August 2005


61.  Basant Kumar Dwivedi, Harsh Dhand, M.Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``RPNG: A Tool for Random Process Network Generation'', Proc of Asia and South Pacific International Conference in Embedded SoCs (ASPICES-2005), Bangalore, India, July 2005.


62.  Anup Gangwar, M. Balakrishnan, Preeti Ranjan Panda and Anshul Kumar,``Evaluation of Bus Based Interconnect Mechanisms in Clustered VLIW Architectures'', Proc. of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE05), Munich, Germany, March 2005, pp. 730-735


63.  Ankit Mathur, Mayank Agarwal, Soumyadeb Mitra, Anup Gangwar, M. Balakrishnan, and Subhashis Banerjee, ``SMPS: An FPGA-based Prototyping Environment for Multiprocessor Embedded Systems'', IEEE/ACM Thirteenth International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA-2005), Monterey, USA, February 2005


64.  Manoj Kumar Jain, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Integrated On-chip Storage Evaluation in ASIP Synthesis'', Proc. 18th International Conference on VLSI Design (VLSI-2005), Kolkata, India, January 2005, pp 274-279.


65.  Gaurav Arora, Abhishek Sharma, M. Balakrishnan and D. Nagchoudhuri, ``ADOPT - An Approach to Activity Based Delay Optimization'', Proc. 18th International Conference on VLSI Design (VLSI-2005), Kolkata, India, January 2005, pp. 411-416.


66.  Basant Kumar Dwivedi, Anshul Kumar and M.Balakrishnan, ``Automatic Synthesis of System on Chip Multiprocessor Architectures for Process Networks '', ISSS 2004, Sep. 8-10, 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 60-65.


67.  Basant Kumar Dwivedi, Anshul Kumar and M.Balakrishnan, ``Synthesis of  Application Specific Multiprocessor Architectures for Process Networks'',  Proc. 17th International Conference on VLSI Design, January 2004, Mumbai, India, pp. 780-787.


68.  Anup Gangwar, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Impact of Inter-cluster Communication Mechanisms on ILP in Clustered VLIW Architectures'', Proc. of the Workshop on Application Specific Processors (WASP-2, held in conjunction with MICRO-36), San Diego, USA, Dec. 2003, pp. 56-63.


69.  Manoj Kumar Jain, M.Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Exploring Storage Organization in ASIP Synthesis'', Euromicro Symposium on Digital System Design (Euro-DSD 2003), September 2003, Belek Near Antalya, Turkey, pp. 120-127.


70.  Amarjeet Singh, Amit Chhabra, Anup Gangwar, Basant K. Dwivedi, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar "SoC Synthesis with Automatic Interface Generation", Proc. of 16th International Conference on VLSI Design (VLSI-2003), January 2003, New Delhi, India, pp. 585-590.


71.  Manoj Kumar Jain, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``An Efficient Technique for Exploring Register File Size in ASIP Synthesis", Proc. of CASES 2002, Grenoble, France, Oct. 2002, pp. 252-261.


72.  C.P. Joshi, Anshul Kumar and M. Balakrishnan, "A New Performance Evaluation Approach for System Level Design Space Exploration", Proc. of ISSS02, October 2002, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 180-185.


73.  Bhuvan Middha, Varun Raj, Anup Gangwarm Anshul Kumar, M. Balakrishnan and Paolo Ienne, "A TRIMARAN Based Framework for Exploring the Design Space of VLIW ASIPS with Coarse Grain Functional Units", Proc. of ISSS02, October 2002, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 2-7.


74.  Stefan Steinke, Nils Grunwald, Lars Wehmeyer, Rajeshwari Banakar, M. Balakrishnan and Peter Marwedel, "Dynamic copying of Instructions into Onchip Memory for Energy Reduction", Proc. of ISSS02, October 2002, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 213-218.


75.  Rajeshwari Banakar, Stefan Steinke, Bo-Sik Lee, M. Balakrishnan and Peter Marwedel, "Scratchpad Memory: A Design Alternative for Cache On-chip Memory in Embedded Systems", Proc. of CODES 2002, Estes Park, Colorado, May 2002, pp. 73-78. (2nd most cited paper published in CODES/ISSS in 10 years; listed by Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis,  “Highly Cited Ideas in System Codesign and Synthesis”, CODES+ISSS’08, October 19–24, 2008, Atlanta, Georgia, USA)



76.  K.N. Murali Mohan, Rohini Krishnan, Anshul Kumar and M. Balakrishnan, " A New Divide and Conquer Method for Achieving High-speed Division in Hardware", Proc. of VLSI Design/ASPDAC 2002, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2002, pp. 535-540.


77.  Vishal P. Bhatt, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, `` Exploring the Number of Register Windows in ASIP Synthsis", Proc. of VLSI Design/ASPDAC 2002, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2002, pp. 233-238.


78.  Manoj Kumar Jain, Lars Wehmeyer, Stefan Steinke, Peter Marwedel and M. Balakrishnan, "Evaluating Register File Size in ASIP Design", Proc. of CODES 2001, Copenhagen, April 2001, pp. 109-114.


79.  Basant K. Dwivedi, Jan Hoogerbrugge, Paul Stravers and M. Balakrishnan, "Exploring Design Space of Parallel Realizations: MPEG-2 Decoder Case Study", Proc. of CODES 2001, Copenhagen, April 2001, pp. 92-97.


80.  Manoj Kumar Jain, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``ASIP Design Methodologies: Survey and Issues", Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2001, pp. 76-81.


81.  Anupam Rastogi, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Integrating Communication Cost Estimation in Embedded Systems Design: A PCI Case Study", Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2001, pp. 23-28.


82.  Vivek Haldar, Gokul Varadhan, Abhishek Saxena, M. Balakrishnan and Subhashis Banerjee, ``Design of Embedded Systems for Real-Time Vision", Proc. Indian Conf. on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, (ICVGIP'2000), Bangalore, India, Dec. 2000.


83.  Akshaye Sama, M. Balakrishnan and J.F.M. Theeuwen, ``Speeding up Power Estimation of Embedded Software", Proc. of ISLPED, 23-24th July 2000, Italy, pp. 191-196.


84.  Arvind Rajawat, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar,``Interface Synthesis : Issues and Approaches", Proc. of 13th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, IEEE CS Press, Calcutta, India, Jan. 2000, pp.92-97


85.  T. Vinod Kumar, P. Sharma, M. Balakrishnan and S. Malik, ``Processor Evaluation in an Embedded Systems Design Environment", Proc. of 13th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, IEEE CS Press, Calcutta, India, Jan. 2000, pp.98-103


86.  Aviral Srivastava, Mohit Kumar, Sanjiv Kapoor, Shashi Kumar and M. Balakrishnan,``Optimal Hardware/Software Partitioning for Concurrent Specification using Dynamic Programming", Proc. of 13th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, IEEE CS Press, Calcutta, India, Jan. 2000, pp.110-113


87.  Ajoy Chakravarthy and M. Balakrishnan,``Simulation and Modeling of a Multi-cast ATM Switch", Proc. of the 12th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Goa, India, Jan. 1999, pp.242-247


88.  Rashmi Goswami, V. Srinivasan and M. Balakrishnan, ``MPEG-2 Video Data Simulator: A Case Study in Constrained HW-SW Codesign", Proc. of 12th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Goa, India, Jan. 1999, pp. 128-131


89.  S.K. Lodha, Shashank Gupta, M. Balakrishnan and S. Banerjee,``Real Time Collision Detection and Avoidance: A Case Study for Design Space Exploration in HW-SW Codesign'',Proc. of  11th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Chennai, India, Jan. 1998, pp. 97-102


90.  Sitanshu Jain,  M. Balakrishnan, Anshul Kumar and Shashi Kumar,``Speeding Up Program Execution Using Reconfigurable Hardware and a Hardware Function Library'',Proc. of  11th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Chennai, India, Jan. 1998, pp. 400-405


91.  A.R. Naseer, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``Optimal Clock Period for Synthesized Data Paths'', Proc. of  10th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Hyderabad, India, Jan. 1997, pp. 134-139.


92.  Gaurav Agarwal, Nitin Thapar, Kamal Agarwal, M. Balakrishnan and Shashi Kumar, ``A Novel Reconfigurable Co-processor Architecture'', Proc. of  10th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Hyderabad, India, Jan. 1997, pp. 370-375


93.  Heman Khanna and M. Balakrishnan, ``Allocation of FIFO Structures in RTL Data Paths'', Proc. of  10th Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Hyderabad, India, Jan. 1997, pp. 130-133.


94.  A.R. Naseer, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, ``A Novel Approach to Direct Realization of RTL Structures using FPGAs'', Proc. of Intl. Workshop on Logic and High Level Synthesis, Grenoble, France, December 1996


95.  Alok Kumar, Anshul Kumar and M. Balakrishnan," Heuristic Search based Approach to Scheduling, Allocation and Binding in Data Path Synthesis", Proc. of  8th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Delhi, India, Jan. 1995, pp. 75-80.


96.  Varshneya, B.B. Madan and M. Balakrishnan," "Memory Coupled Scalable Multiprocessors" Proc. of the 1st Workshop on Parallel Processing, Bangalore, India, Dec. 1994, pp. 424-429.


97.  A.R. Naseer, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "An Efficient Technique for Mapping RTL Structures onto FPGAs", Proc. FPL '94, Prague, Czech Republic, Sep. 1994, LNCS vol-849, pp. 89-110.


98.  Varshneya, B.B. Madan and M. Balakrishnan," Concurrent Search and Insertion in K-Dimensional Height Balanced Trees", Proc. of Intl. Parallel Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, May 1994, pp.883-887.


99.  A.R.Naseer, M.Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "A Technique for Synthesizing Data Part Using FPGAs ", Proc. of 2nd IEEE/ACM Intl. Symp. on FPGAs, Berkeley, California, Feb. 1994.


100.          A.R.Naseer, M.Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "FAST : FPGA Targeted RTL Structure Synthesis Technique", Proc. of 7th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Calcutta, India, Jan. 1994, pp.21-24.


101.          M.V. Rao, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "DESSERT: Design Space Exploration of RT Level Components", Proc. of 6th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design, Bombay, India, Jan. 1993, pp. 299-304.


102.          P.P. Nedungadi, M. Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "Data Path Synthesis with Global Time Constraint",(Poster Paper) Proc. of 5th CSI/IEEE Intl. Conf. on VLSI Design,  Bangalore, India, Jan. 1992, pp.322-323.


103.          Alok Kumar, Anshul Kumar and M. Balakrishnan, " A Novel Integrated Scheduling and Allocation Algorithm for Data Path Synthesis", Proc. of VLSI Design '91, IEEE Computer Society Press, New Delhi, Jan. 1991, pp.212-218.


104.          B.L. Priyadarshan, M. Balakrishnan, Anshul Kumar and G.S. Visweswaran, "SYMCAD : Synthesis of Microprogrammed Control for Automated VLSI Design", Proc. of Intl. Workshop of Microprogramming (MICRO-23), Orlando, Florida, Nov. 1990, pp. 176-182.


105.          M.Balakrishnan and Anshul Kumar, "A Comparative Study of Techniques for Synthesis of Optimal Structures from Behavioral Descriptions", Proc. Of VLSI Design, Bangalore, India, Jan. 1990. (Reprinted in MicroArch, IEEE Technical Committee on Computer Architecture, Vol. 5, No. 1, April 1990, pp. 2-7.


106.          M.Balakrishnan and P.Marwedel, "Integrated Scheduling and Binding: A Synthesis Approach for Design Space Exploration", Proc. of 26th Design Automation Conference, '89, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, June 1989 pp.68-74. 




Annexure C

List of applicant’s books or book chapters published


ASSISTECH: An Accidental Journey into Assistive Technology, M. Balakrishnan, A Journey of Embedded and Cyber-Physical System (chapter 5), Ed. Jian-Jia Chen, Springer, ISBN 978-3-030-47486-7, 2020


Majority Logic: From Algebra to Synthesis

D. Rajeshwari, K Paul, M Balakrishnan,   Springer,  To appear


Architecture exploration of FPGA based accelerators for bioinformatics applications

BSC Varma, K Paul, M Balakrishnan, Springer, ISBN: 978-981-10-0589-3 (Print)  978-981-10-0591-6 (Online), 2016, 2016


Anshul Kumar, M. Balakrishnan, Manoj Kumar Jain and Anup Gangwar, ``Customizing Embedded Processors for Specific Applications'', Recent Trends in Practice and Theory of Information Technology, Proc. of NRB Seminar, 10-11 January 2005, NPOL, Cochin, pp. 261-284, ISBN 81-309-0171-4, © DRDO, Publ. Viva Books Pvt. Ltd. 



Annexure D

List of patents held


Following patents have been awarded


1.    Patent No.: 327772

Date of Grant: 19.12.2019



Application No.: 1355/DEL/2007

Date of filing: 22/06/2007

Expiration Date: 22/06/2027


Following patents have been filed and are under review


1.      Multimodal Interaction System and Method for Visually Impaired, 201611016353, (Along with IGDTUW), Filing date 10 May 2016, Disclosure date 30th Oct 2016


2.      Multi-modal Infotainment Device, (1729/DEL/2014, 27th June 2015)


3.      A Compliant Mechanism for Refreshable Braille Display Using Shape Memory Alloy (1575/DEL/2015 dated 5th June 2015 and PCT Application No. PCT/IN2015/050043 dated 8th June 2015)


4.      A Split Grip Cane Handle Unit With Tactile Feedback For Directed Ranging (388/DEL/2014, 12th Feb. 2014)


5.      A System for Generating Refreshable Tactile Text and Graphic (1669/DEL/2012, 31st  May 2012 and PCT application No. PCT/IN2013/000347 dated 31st May 2013)


6.      Cane-Mounted Waste Above Obstacle Detection & Warning System (1354/DEL/2007, 22nd June 2007)



Trademarks & Design Registrations


1.      SmartCaneTM : A trademark registered on 18th Feb. 2014 for our Smart Cane device (application no.: 2680919)


2.      Cane for Visually Impaired: Design registration on 21st Oct 2013 (application no.: 257665)




Annexure E

Sponsored Research and other significant professional activities


I have been involved in 32 sponsored projects with a total value of approximately Rs. 15.00 crores. I have been PI of 18 of these projects with a total value of approx 10.00 crores. Apart from DST, Meity etc. I have carried out contract research for Wellcome Trust, Samsung, NRB, DRDO, Intel, Freescale and EADS

The projects currently under progress are listed below.



Sponsoring Agency

Sanctioned Funds (Rs.)

Project Start Date

Project Completion Date

Contextual Rendering of Equations for Visually Impaired Persons

(With Uni of Birmingham, UK)

Google USA




Creating Accessible STEM documents (Under SPARC scheme of MHRD)

(With Uni of Birmingham, UK)

Ministry of Human Resource & Development




Indoor Navigation Assistance of Patients in the RP center

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)




Development of a Suite of Indigenous Assistive Systems and Tools for the Disabled Community in India(under IMPRINT scheme)

(With IIT Madras and IIT Kharagpur)

 Ministry of Human Resource & Development







Some of the recently completed projects include:



ICT Centre of Excellence on Tactile Graphics

M Balakrishnan


Prem K Kalra

MEITY, Govt. of India

221.00 Lakhs

Dec 2014 – May 2018


Development of a Suite of Indigenous Assistive Systems and Tools for the Disabled Community in India

M Balakrishnan

MHRD, (under IMPRINT scheme), MHRD

121.20 Lakhs

June 2017 – June 2020


Indian Sign Language App for Hearing Impaired

M Balakrishnan

Prem Kalra


Min. of Social Justice & Empowerment, Govt. of India



Jan 2017 – Jan 2018


Collaboration with Indiana University in Tactile Graphics


M Balakrishnan





Aug 2017 – Aug 2018 


On Board Phase 2: Design, Implementation and Testing of Improved Version Based on Feedback from the Pilot Trial , DST, Govt. of India

M Balakrishnan




DST - TIDE, Govt of India

46.12 Lakhs

Mar 2017 – Mar 2018


Affordable Refreshable Braille Displays based on Shape Memory Actuation, Wellcome Trust, UK

M Balakrishnan


(Dipendra Manocha – Saksham

Sashi Kumar –

Phoenix Medical)


618  Lakhs


 (all 4 partners together)

Apr. 2014 –

June 2018


Smart Cane- Development Course for National and International dissemination

M Balakrishnan




75.00 Lakhs

Apr 2014 – Oct 2017


Development of Open source screen reading software NVDA and enhancement with Indian Languages

M Balakrishnan

Centre of Internet & Society

30.40 Lakhs

Feb 2013 – Mar 2017


INALSI: Indoor Navigarion with Access to Location Specific Information

M Balakrishnan

Kolin Paul


Samsung, India

25.00 Lakhs

Nov 2013 – June 2015


Development of a Low-cost Electronic Braille Display for the Visually Impaired


M Balakrishnan


DST - TIDE, Govt of India

38.00 Lakhs

Sep 2013 – Mar. 2016


OnBoard: Assistive Device for Public Bus Access for the Visually Impaired

M Balakrishnan



DST - TIDE, Govt of India

35.00 Lakhs

Sep. 2013 – June 2015


ePSD: Electronic Personal Safety Device

M Balakrishnan

Kolin Paul


DEITY, Govt. of India

48.00 Lakhs

Nov. 2013 –

Mar 2015


Development of Smart Cane - An Affordable knee-above obstacle detection and warning system for the visually impaired

M Balakrishnan


Kolin Paul

(Dipendra Manocha – Saksham

Sashi Kumar –

Phoenix Medical)


137  Lakhs


(Total 291 Lakhs)

Dec. 2010 –

Apr. 2014


Apart from these sponsored projects, I have undertaken 21 consultancies with a total approximate value of Rs. 117 lakhs. These include consulting projects from globally leading companies in EDA and VLSI like Synplicity, Sequence Design, ST Microelectronics etc. Other consultancy projects include embedded product development for Indian industry, Govt. bodies on system related issues and education related consultancies. Because of current preoccupation with projects for the visually impaired I do not undertake any consultancy projects currently.


The SmartCaneTM (Project no 7 & 13 sponsored by Wellcome Trust, UK) that resulted in technology transfer to Phoenix Medical Systems, Chennai has resulted in royalty income to IIT Delhi in excess of Rs 1.00 crore
Annexure F

PhD and Other Research Student Project Guidance


 Ph.D.  Currently registered:


* Vikas Upadhyay, Ph.D. (2018- )(
Co-supervisor: Rohan Paul

Topic: FPGA accelerators for computer vision applications


*Shikha Goel, Ph.D. (2018- )(
Co-supervisor: Rijurekha Sen

Topic: FPGA accelerators for computer vision applications


*Akashdeep Bansal. Ph.D.(2016-) (

Co-supervisor: Volker Sorge (University of Birmingham)

Topic: Reading assistant for visually impaired (RAVI)


*Anupam Sobti, PhD. (2016 - ) (

Co-supervisor: Chetan Arora

Topic: Multi-sensors and DNN based vision algorithms



Thesis Submitted


*Solomon Abera Bekele,  Ph.D. (2014- 2020) (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Topic: Resource Contention Aware Performance and Power Optimization in

Chip Multiprocessors



Ph.D. Completed:

*Rajesh Kedia, Ph.D. (2015- 2020) (

Co-supervisor: Kolin Paul

Topic: A framework for designing context-aware adaptive embedded Systems


            *Richa Gupta,  Ph.D. (2015- 2020)( Co-supervisors: P.V.M. Rao, Steven Mannheimer (IUPUI, Indianapolis)

Topic: Understanding tactile perception for design of effective tactile graphics


*Piyush Chanana, Ph.D. (2012- 2020) (

Co-supervisor: PVM Rao

Topic: Study of independent travel needs of persons with blindness and assistive technology solutions

            Current affiliation:  Raised Lines Foundation, IIT Delhi Start-up


*Gayathri Ananthanarayanan, Ph.D. (2011- 2017) (

Co-supervisor: Smruti Sarangi

Topic: Power estimation for systems based on multi-core processors

Current affiliation: IIT Dharwad


*Arun Parekh, Ph.D. (2009-2016) (,  

Co-supervisor: Kolin Paul

Topic: Performance Estimation and Mapping of Applications onto GPUs

            Current affiliation:  SGSIT Indore


* Rajeswari, Ph.D. (2008-2015)(

Co-supervisor: Kolin Paul

Title: Novel Architectures and Synthesis Methods for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata


*Mansureh Shahraki, Ph.D. (2010- 2015) (

Co-supervisor: Kolin Paul

Title: Application Mapping onto Reconfigurable Coarse-Grained Arrays

Current affiliation: INRIA, CAIRN, France


*Sharat Chandra Varma, Ph.D. (2008- 2014) (

Co-supervisor: Kolin Paul

Title: Architecture Exploration of FPGA Based Accelerators for Bioinformatics Applications,

Current Affliation: Lecturer, University of Belfast


* Lava Bhargava, Ph.D. (2005- 2013)(

Co-supervisor: Ranjan Bose (EE)

Title: Energy Estimation and Modeling of LDPC Decoders

Current affiliation: Professor, NIT Jaipur


* Sonali Chauhan, Ph.D. 2010, (

Co-supervisor: Ranjan Bose(EE)

Title: An Integrated Framework for Energy Optimization of Wireless Sensor Nodes

Current affiliation: Associate Professor, EE Deptt., IIT Gauhati


* Aryabartta Sahu, Ph.D., 2010, (

Co-supervisor: Preeti Ranjan Panda

Title: Evaluation and Mapping of Applications on Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Systems

Current affiliation: Associate Professor, CSE Deptt., IIT Gauhati


* Anup Gangwar, Ph.D. 2005, (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: Performance Driven Synthesis of Application Specific Clustered VLIW Processors

Current affiliation: ARM, Austin, Texas


* Basant Diwedi, Ph.D. 2005, (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: Synthesizing Application Specific Multiprocessor Architectures for Process Networks 

Current affiliation: Synopsys, Bangalore


* Rajeshwari Banakar, Ph.D. 2003, (

Co-supervisor: Ranjan Bose(EE)

Title: A Low Power Design Methodology for Turbo Encoder and Decoder

Current affiliation: Professor, & HoD, E&C Department, BVB Engineering College, Hubli


* Manoj Kr. Jain, Ph.D. 2003, (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: Exploring Register File Size and Memory Configuration in ASIP Synthesis

Current affiliation:  Professor, Udaipur University, Udaipur


* A.R. Naseer, Ph.D. 1995, (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: Realization of Synthesized RTL Structures on LUT based FPGAs

Current affiliation: Inha University, Tashkent


* Atul Varshneya, Ph.D. 1995,

Co-supervisor: B.B. Madan

Title: Parallel Dictionary Operations: Algorithms and Architectures

Current affiliation: Tavant, California



Ph.D. Completed (Closely associated with):

* Anant Vishnoi, Ph.D. (2003- )(

Supervisor: Preeti Ranjan Panda

Title: Cache Data Compression: Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

Current affiliation: Assistant Professor, IIT Ropar



* Alok Kumar, Ph.D. 1993 (

Supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: A Versatile Data Path Synthesis Approach based on Heuristic Search


MS(R) in progress:


*Radhika Dharwadkar (2014 -) (

System level design and modeling of MAVI



MS(R) Completed:


*Suman Muralikrishna (2015 -) (

Low power design of Refreshable Braille Display


* C.P. Joshi, M.S. 2003, (

Co-supervisor: Anshul Kumar

Title: Communication Modeling and Performance Analysis of Embedded Systems


* Piyush Gupta, M.S. 2003, (

Co-supervisor: Sanjeev Kapoor

Title: Automating Functional Partitioning Over Heterogenenous Platforms for Design of Embedded Systems


* M. Anand, M.S. 1998, (

Co-supervisor: Sanjiv Kapoor

Title: Hardware/Software Partitioning between Microprocessor and Reconfigurable Hardware



Apart from these supervised 124 M.Tech. and 84 B.Tech projects  (upto July 2019)






Annexure G

Associated Start-Ups  

I have been a founding member/initiated three start-ups





KritiKal Solutions

Design services and products in the space of embedded systems and vision applications

Along with four other faculty members and seven graduates of IIT Delhi formed an embedded and vision design services company in 2002

Vehant Technologies

Vision and Image Processing products company

Along with another investor,  KSPL formed KritiKal Secure Scan in 2005/06. Later it was renamed as Vehant Technologies

Raised Lines Foundation

Tactile books for the visually impaired. Primary objective is to facilitate inclusion of visually impaired in STEM higher education with affordable tactile books

Along with two other founders, formed a section 8 (non-profit) company in 2018 based on the know-how developed in the project “Centre of Excellence in Tactile Graphics”



Annexure H

Technology Transfers


My group has been responsible for developing products/solutions resulting in six technology transfers



Transferred to



FPGA Education Kit

VPL Infotech, NOIDA

Educational trainer kit for FPGAs

500+ units were sold in 60+ Institutions


Phoenix Medical Systems

Mobility aid for visually impaired

80,000+ devices sold in India and 20+ other countries


KritiKal Solutions

Refreshable Braille laptop

Small volume production had started

SMA based Braille Cell Module

Phoenix Medical Systems

Refreshable Braille cell module for DotBookTM


KritiKal Solutions

Aid for visually impaired to board public buses

Tested with pilots in 25 BEST buses and 20 Orange cluster buses in Mumbai and Delhi respectively

Know-how for Tactile Diagram Design and Production

Raised Lines Foundation

Tactile books for the visually impaired

Already 1,50,000 tactile diagrams, 30+ titles and 6400+ tactile books delivered



Annexure I

Other Professional Activities


§  Associate Editor, ACM TECS (2016 - )

§  Associate Editor,  IEEE Embedded Systems Letters (ESL)(2013-2016) 

§  Fellow, INAE

§  Senior Member, IEEE

§  Senior Member, ACM

§  Lectures at Philips Research, Philips Semiconductors, Wipro, Cadence Design Systems. ARM and numerous universities and research laboratories in Germany, France, The Netherlands, USA, Malaysia, Korea, Qatar, Australia, Nepal and Singapore

§  Tutorials at two VLSI Design Conferences and two VDAT Conferences

§  Keynotes at more than forty conferences 

§  Member of ACM DSP, New York (selection of ACM Distinguished Speaker Awardees) (2011-2014)

§  Eureka Rajya Sabha TV Broadcast (6 Jan 2018)

§  Reviewer for IEEE TCAD, ACM TODAES and many other journals

§  Technical Program Chair of VLSI Design 1995 and 2003

§  Organizing Chair FPT 2011, (Dec 2011)


§  Chairman, Delhi-NCR ACM Chapter

§  Chairperson/Member of numerous PRS&G committees of DEITY, MCIT

§  Chairperson for two years of MSJE committee for selection of National Awardees

Annexure J

Education and Research Management: Key Initiatives and Contributions


J1: Role of Deputy Director (Strategy & Planning) (20016-19)

Starting from 1st July 2016 to 31st Oct 2019 I was the Deputy Director (Strategy & Planning) at IIT Delhi. In this period I not only worked very closely with the Director (Prof. Ramgopal Rao) to implement the Institute’s agenda but also a played a key role in initiating as well as implementing many significant changes in academic structures and Institute management. Some key activities where I played a critical role include the following.


i.            I directed the preparation of the IIT Delhi’s Institution of Eminence proposal that was accepted by the committee and IIT Delhi became one of the first three public Institutions to be given IoE status

ii.            Steps needed to achieve many of the goals of IoE including recruitment of International students and faculty

iii.            Played a key role in many of the initiatives to make our academic offerings modern -Setting up SIRE (School of Inter-disciplinary Research), School of Public Policy, School of Artificial Intelligence, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Department of Design and major Restructuring of two existing centres (CART for electric vehicles and SENSE for sensors and cyber-physical systems)

iv.            Setting up of the JATC – a DRDO centre

v.            Building strong partnerships with Institutions in the neighborhood including AIIMS and JNU

vi.            First two joint PhD programs with University of Queensland, Australia and NCTU, Taiwan

vii.            Operationalization of the I-TEC, IIT Delhi’s Sonepat campus

viii.            Expansion of Central Research Facility (CRF) in the campus as well as in Sonepat

ix.            Expansion of the incubation program in IIT Delhi

x.            Handling all issues related to student strength increase from EWS (economically weaker section) quota and gender balance quota

xi.            Review of internal revenue generation (IRG) due to shift from grants to HEFA loan by the Govt for asset creation and steps like change in fee structure and hostel seat rent to increase IRG


J2: Key Initiatives/contributions in previous academic leadership roles (2001-16)


1.      Contributing to Enhancing the Research Profile of IIT Delhi: IITs have established an image world wide of a quality undergraduate institution though its PG to UG ratio at 3:2 is higher than most other research universities in the world,.  As Dean Post Graduates Studies & Research, I was actively engaged in policies and programs to do the image makeover. All these were geared towards increasing the number and quality of doctoral students and also projecting the Institute beyond its undergraduate education. The number of PhD students increased from approximately 780 to nearly 1350 in my tenure as Dean(PGSR) i.e. from 2006 to 2009. Some significant initiatives are listed below.

a.      Significant policy changes piloted included facilitating enrolment of project staff in masters and PhD programs, easy changeover from masters to PhD and provision of admission of our UG students to PG programs with advance standing.

b.      For projecting the Institute research, an Open House on the fourth Saturday of April was started for public demonstration of research projects, a PG website listing major achievements of our PG students (, international conference participation as well as thesis presentations Institute wide. Working with industry sponsors as well as alumni donors for strengthening the PG programs and give it higher visibility. As part of this initiative, started celebration of National Science day (28th Feb.) as a research Scholars day where selected PhD students from different departments, present their work in a poster session as well as seminars.

c.       Towards the same end with a view to creating a unique space for IIT Delhi among the NCR (National Capital Region) industries, a professional candidate registration scheme which permits engineers from industries to register for regular courses in the Institute to upgrade their knowledge and skills has been started. To encourage participation by eliminating travel time, a few select courses were also being taken to industry sites through video conferencing.


2.      Scaling up Research and Quality Education: There has been a major expansion of technical education in the country but most of the faculty joining these new Institutions though expected to do PhD for career growth but has no exposure to quality research. With a view to address this, took initiative to introduce the summer faculty research fellowship program that enables teachers from different colleges to spend time in summer associated with the IIT Delhi faculty in the domain of their research interest. Started in summer of 2008, at present IIT Delhi hosts nearly 150 faculty members each year and a significant fraction of them start their research at IIT Delhi or elsewhere soon after that


3.      Innovative Experiments in Education/Research: I have been in the forefront of a majority of innovative changes that have happened in IIT Delhi in the last 15 years. This includes dual degree program, 1-credit module research courses, member of the UG curriculum committee that was adopted in 2003, formalizing teaching assistantship functions etc. In addition I would like to mention two major initiatives to increase global footprint of IIT Delhi.


a.      A distance education program across continents (with Ethiopia) has been offered at the post-graduate level. This was the outcome of a delegation I took to Ethiopia on the invitation of their education ministry. The program provided instruction through 2-way audio-video links and a limited one-week interaction period per semester. Nine different programs from four different Engineering disciplines were completed. Nearly 500 Ethiopian Engg teachers (that constitute a significant fraction of teachers in technical Institutions in Ethiopia) have now been trained by IIT Delhi. This involved more than 80 visits involving nearly 50 faculty members from 5 different departments. IIT Delhi is receiving large number of PhD applications from Ethiopia which can be directly attributed to this initiative. This is perhaps a beginning to make IIT Delhi a truly international institution. This could have been one of the largest post graduate distance education programs in the world.


b.      On the invitation of the education ministry of Govt. of Mauritius, I took a 6-member delegation to Mauritius to study the feasibility of setting up an IIT like Institution. The study produced a unique model of a research based IIT Delhi academy transforming in 5 years to an IIT like Institution supporting both UG education and research. The feasibility study was accepted by the Mauritius Govt. IIT Delhi and MRC then signed an MoU for setting up an IITRA (International Institute of Technology Research Academy) at Mauritius which was expected to start functioning from summer of 2014. We even recruited a few PhD students and faculty members. This would have brought a unique visibility to IIT Delhi especially in Africa and can have a major impact in our research capability buildup. Unfortunately the project had to be shelved as the new Indian Government formed in 2014 was the opinion that IIT statutes did not permit establishment of a research academy abroad by IITs.



Annexure K

 Key Initiatives and Contributions in Embedded/VLSI/EDA/CS Domains


1.      Establishing a Centre for Embedded Assistive Technologies for the Disabled (AssisTech): Esablished a centre that is dedicated to development of embedded assistive devices for the disabled – main focus has been mobility and education of visually impaired. Initial success was achieved by building prototypes of “Smart Cane” and “User Triggered Bus Identification System”. “Smart Cane” technology has already been transferred to industry with the “Bus Identification System” ready for technology transfer. SmartCaneTM has been under production for more than 5 years and has more than 80000 users in India and twenty two other countries.   This started by mainly involving undergraduate students from CSE, EE and Mechanical Engg and is aimed towards developing and creating affordable solutions for the physically impaired people in the developing world. ( Another prestigious project on Refreshable Braille Display sponsored by Wellcome Trust (Grant amount > USD 1 million) has been completed and products for sampling under the brand name DotBookTM have been launched. A Centre of Excellence in Tactile Graphics funded by MEITY has successfully created a process and technology for end-to-end production of affordable tactile diagrams ( This know-how has been used to incubate Raised Lines Foundation ( a section 8 non-profit company. I initiated a major conference in Assistive Technology named EMPOWER 2018 ( in October 2018 which saw AT researchers and users from all over the country and some globally renowned AT experts as speakers. Based on its success we followed it up with EMPOWER 2019 in October 2019 ( This year it would be organized by IIIT Bangalore. My work in AT space has been recognized through three national awards (two by DST and one by MSJE) and the ACM Eugene L Lawler award (2019) in the last five years.


2.      M.Tech. VDTT Program: Key person in initiating the first fully industry sponsored M.Tech. programme in VLSI Design, Tools and Technology. Almost all the major VLSI and EDA companies have sponsored students to this program at one time or other.  This has emerged as an innovative nationally recognized post graduate program attracting the very best students and setting a model of sponsorship as well as successful collaboration CS and EE Departments. A number of students have taken to research with strengths in both disciplines and are sure to emerge as leaders in this domain in the future.


3.      Pioneered introduction of FPGAs in UG curriculum: Recognizing its potential early on i.e. in early 90’s, I have worked constantly towards introducing FPGAs in the UG curriculum. First it was in the form of project work and then it became part of the digital lab in mid-90s and today second year students in CS and EE go through a digital systems design experience around FPGAs. In this process developed an educational kit and transferred know-how to a micro-controller kit manufacturer for production; developed a set of experiments and conducted short workshops for teachers and 6-week long workshop for students from other engineering colleges.


4.      First Faculty-Student led Startup at IIT Delhi: IIT Delhi had an incubator with few takers from the Institute community. With the CS graduates of 2002, facilitated the first joint faculty-student led startup named ”KritiKal Solutions Pvt. Ltd.” ( KritiKal emerged as a trend setter motivating more than 15 such startups in the campus. Kritikal Solutions acts as a design house in the area of Embedded Systems and Computer Vision and employs around 150 people now. Another company named named Vehant Technologies (formerly called KritiKal Secure Scan) was incubated which has camera based security products. I was a founder/mentor of KritiKal Solutions and spent half of my sabbatical time in 2004-2005 working with the startup; a trend which has been followed by a number of faculty members since in IIT Delhi.


5.      Establishing the Best Known Embedded Systems Research Group in India:   IIT Delhi has the strongest embedded systems research group with five faculty members and nearly twenty active research students. This has been possible with myself working closely with Prof Anshul Kumar in the period from 1990 to 2010. Even at that time the research group has reached more than half a million dollar in research funding from Govt. as well as R&D units of industry in India and abroad. The group started regular workshops in system level design which has now emerged as one track in the VLSI design conference as Embedded Systems Conference. Finally this resulted in attracting three more highly qualified faculty members to the Department.


6.      Significant Member of VLSI Design Conference: VLSI design conference has emerged as a key event attracting technical papers from India and abroad, a vibrant exhibition and major networking event at one time was attracting more than 1000 delegates. In the period from 1990 to 2016, I have continuously worked to promote the event and participated in many capacities. I have been the technical program chair for the 1995 and 2004 events, proposed and initiated the design contest, been fellowship chair etc. I initiated the Embedded Systems conference which runs as a special track in the conference. Was a member of the steering committee for nearly two decades and participated actively in giving direction to the society. Presented papers in most of the years, given tutorial twice and been on the panel discussions a number of times. The platform provided by VLSI design and its sister event VDAT, has played a significant role in the growth of industry, education as well as research in VLSI  in India.  


7.      Founding Member of ACM India: In 2010, started the ACM India section along with seven other founding members. It is already growing and making an impact on technical activities in CS in India.


Annexure L

 Academic Planning at Satya Bharti Institute of Technology

(2 Jan 2020 – 30 Sep 2020)



1.      Background: Satya Bharti Institute of Technology was being founded by Satya Bharti Foundation (SBF) which itself was promoted by the founders of Bharti Enterprises. They were already involved heavily in school education of large number of students from economically and socially weaker sections of the society through Bharti Foundation (BF). A key objective of the SBF was to provide high quality technical education to a significant number of students from economically weak as well as rural/semi-urban background. The founders applied for “Institution of Eminence” (IoE) status and were one of the two private Institutions that received Letter of Intent as a Greenfield IoE. This also meant that Satya Bharti was to be a multi-disciplinary Institution with 10,000 students, 10:1 faculty–student ratio and to be ranked within 500 globally in 10 years. The plan was to acquire land (in Mohali), completely build significant part of the campus and start the academic programs in July/August 2022.


2.      My role: I was appointed as the founding Vice Chancellor in late November 2019 and I joined on 2nd Jan 2020 on a 5 year contract. My responsibility was to completely develop both academic and research programs and that included strategy for faculty recruitment, student admission etc. I needed to work with AGB (Academic governing body) and CTM (Core team) which consisted of academicians, entrepreneurs and legal/finance managers from both within India and abroad. On the positive side, I had more than 30 months available to plan and roll out the academic programs. In the nine months I was there, I built a small support team (4 members) and focused on key initiatives/differentiators to address the more difficult aspects of building a quality Institution quickly.


3.      Academic programs: Some key decisions are listed below

          i.          For the undergraduate program we planned to create an eco-system of innovation and to achieve that we added Design and Management programs to CS and EE programs mentioned in the IoE application. Idea was to encourage students to form inter-disciplinary groups and think about product/process design. Curriculum itself would have flexibility to trade-off course credits with additional project credits and that can be done through 2nd to 4th year. Academic advisory committees for Management and Design programs were constituted and detailed recommendations as to the structure/nature of these programs (not detailed curriculum) were evolved.

        ii.          An alternative option to in-campus education was formulated. Students can take up an option where he/she would be off-campus each year starting second year for 10 months doing Internship along with 10 credits of course work per semester online. Student would come to the campus during summer for those courses and laboratories that cannot be effectively offered online. This would enable students who cannot afford full-time college education even with tuition waiver to pursue studies in the “earn while you learn” mode. Of course it would help even other students undergoing this alternative program with better employment opportunities.

      iii.          One key consideration in UG program design was that though the students may come assigned to pursue education in some discipline but would have complete flexibility in changing their “major” within the first two years based on their interest and aptitude. First year courses would be designed keeping in view this requirement – students should have an opportunity to understand his/her own strengths and interest.

       iv.          PhD programs were to start almost simultaneously with the UG programs as without that attracting faculty who are active researchers would be hard. Registration of students from industry for PhD program was to be promoted by removing the residency requirement and defining a different IPR ownership policy for the industry sponsored students. PhD fellowships were to be bundled to faculty professional grants making faculty stakeholders in attracting students. This was expected to encourage them to make their research more visible.

         v.          PG programs were to be mainly online programs and would start only after Satya Bharti had sufficient number of faculty in a particular sub-discipline for starting the Master’s programs.

4.      Student admission: One key differentiator was at Satya Bharti we wanted to make School recommendations/nominations an integral part of the school admission process. Engaging with schools and school teachers was considered desirable rather than adopting an existing or a new entrance examination solely for admissions. Plan was to seek nominations from schools BF has already been working with for many years. These were all state government schools mainly in the rural/semi-urban area and typically gets students who are poor and can’t afford private school education. Bring the nominated students to a one week or two weeks Science camp and select from them after observing their performance and preparedness. Recognize and reward those schools and school teachers whose alumni do well in Satya Bharti. These students were to be provided free education and in some cases free boarding and lodging as well (need based). Over a period of time, this would make these Schools and School teachers’ key stakeholders in Satya Bharti.

5.      Faculty recruitment: Recruiting quality faculty with strong research record  established through their education and publications is the most difficult part in building any quality Institution. A number of initiatives were planned to attract top quality faculty.

                    i.            Organize six 2-week research workshops with upto 8 top quality speakers (5/6 from abroad and 2/3 from India) and 30 invited participants who are all senior PhD students/post-docs working in leading research groups across the world. This was clearly an exercise to make Satya Bharti name visible across the relevant research communities in an accelerated manner. Note in each workshop we were planning to invite 25 participants from abroad and 5 from India and fully pay for their travel, boarding and lodging. Even if they do not themselves apply for a faculty position, other students working in their research groups would come to know about Satya Bharti. An extensive list of active research groups in key research areas was prepared to kick-start this activity.

                  ii.             It is very hard to recruit senior faculty who are active researchers. To be able to attract senior faculty, research centres with chair positions was defined. These chairs would not only be provided with space as well as funding for equipment and research scholars to setup their research centres. Further, they would also have a direct responsibility of recruiting 6 to 8 faculty in their research domain. The expectation of senior faculty working in top Institutions in India who are struggling to get support for starting their research groups or those wanting to return from abroad in mid-career may find this offer attractive. These chairs were to be advertised in many International professional magazines and e-groups.

                iii.            To attract adjunct faculty from industry as well as other independent professionals’ attractive terms of engagement were evolved. They need to commit to only 2-weeks in a year in the campus and would be able to define and supervise student projects at all levels (including PhD) as well as mentor students and start-ups independently.

                 iv.            Possibility of joint appointment with industry or another Institution with time splitting between the two organizations was defined. This would not only significantly enhance the compensation package to a new recruit but also provide access to industry problems and data for research. Even in this short period we had some success in getting support letter from a leading industry for such joint appointment.

6.      Academic calendar: A unique academic calendar consisting of two 4-month semesters, one 2-month summer term and four 2-week short terms was defined. The idea was such a calendar would promote a strong visitor program both within India and abroad. Being able to invite established academicians or professionals can not only result in high quality education but also can accelerate visibility to attract full-time faculty.

7.      Status: The academics plans were being drawn up with a view to start the programs in July/August 2022. Unfortunately promoters were having difficulty in land acquisition as a large campus for housing not only academic buildings but also the students and faculty was being planned. Covid-19 pandemic made founders to think afresh – should we really go towards a full brick-and-mortar campus for all the students or have a new paradigm that provides for a small residential campus with more students studying online. As the IoE status meant a strong emphasis on the physical infrastructure, this may not have been feasible. Finally in late September, founders decided to close the project and tie up with another upcoming Institution (Plaksha University in Mohali) with a similar charter for sponsoring economically weak students.